top of page

Icewomen Community

Public·14 members
Arseny Antonov
Arseny Antonov

The History of Islam: A Comprehensive Guide (PDF)



# History of Islam PDF Free Download ## Introduction - What is Islam and who are Muslims? - When and where did Islam originate? - What are the main sources of Islamic teachings? - Why is the history of Islam important to learn? ## The Life of Prophet Muhammad - Who was Muhammad and what was his background? - How did he receive the first revelation from Allah? - What were the main challenges he faced in Mecca and Medina? - How did he establish the first Muslim community and state? ## The Spread of Islam - How did Islam expand beyond Arabia after Muhammad's death? - What were the main factors that contributed to the success of Islamic conquests? - How did Islam interact with other civilizations and cultures? - What were the main achievements of Islamic civilization in science, art, literature, and law? ## The Division of Islam - What caused the split between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims? - What are the main differences and similarities between the two sects? - How did the division affect the political and religious landscape of Islam? - What are some of the current issues and challenges facing Sunni and Shi'a Muslims? ## The Diversity of Islam - How did Islam adapt to different regions and contexts? - What are some of the major branches and movements within Islam? - How do Muslims practice their faith in various ways? - What are some of the common misconceptions and stereotypes about Islam and Muslims? ## The Future of Islam - How many Muslims are there in the world today and where do they live? - What are some of the opportunities and challenges facing Muslims in the modern world? - How do Muslims contribute to society and humanity in various fields? - What are some of the hopes and aspirations of Muslims for the future? ## Conclusion - Summarize the main points of the article - Emphasize the importance and relevance of learning about the history of Islam - Provide a link to download a PDF version of the article - Provide 5 unique FAQs about the history of Islam Now, based on this outline, I'll start writing the article step by step. Here is the first part: # History of Islam PDF Free Download Islam is one of the major world religions, with over 1.5 billion followers worldwide. The word Islam means "submission" or "surrender" to the will of God, who is called Allah in Arabic. Muslims are those who believe in Allah and follow his guidance as revealed through his final messenger, Muhammad. Islam originated in Mecca, a city in present-day Saudi Arabia, in the 7th century CE. Muhammad, who was born around 570 CE, received his first revelation from Allah at the age of 40, through the angel Gabriel. He began to preach his message of monotheism, social justice, and moral reform to his fellow Meccans, but faced persecution and opposition from the pagan elites. In 622 CE, he migrated with his followers to Medina, where he established the first Muslim community and state. He died in 632 CE, after completing his mission and uniting most of Arabia under Islam. The main sources of Islamic teachings are the Qur'an, which is believed to be the literal word of Allah revealed to Muhammad, and the Sunnah, which is the example and tradition of Muhammad as recorded in authentic reports called hadiths. Muslims also refer to other sources of guidance, such as consensus (ijma'), analogy (qiyas), reason (aql), and mysticism (tasawwuf), depending on their legal schools (madhabs) and theological orientations (aqidahs). The history of Islam is important to learn because it helps us understand how Islam developed over time and how it interacted with other civilizations and cultures. It also helps us appreciate the diversity and richness of Islamic thought and practice, as well as the challenges and opportunities facing Muslims today. To download a PDF version of this article for free, please click here. Here is the second part of the article: ## The Life of Prophet Muhammad Muhammad, son of Abdullah, son of Abdul Muttalib, of the tribe of Quraysh, was born in Mecca around 570 CE. His father died before he was born, and he was raised first by his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, and then by his uncle, Abu Talib. He belonged to a poor but respectable family of the Quraysh tribe. The family was active in Meccan politics and trade. Many of the tribes living in the Arabian Peninsula at the time were nomadic, trading goods as they crisscrossed the desert. Most tribes were polytheistic, worshipping their own set of gods. The town of Mecca was an important trading and religious center, home to many temples and worship sites where the devoted prayed to the idols of these gods. The most famous site was the Kaaba (meaning cube in Arabic). It is believed to have been built by Abraham (Ibrahim to Muslims) and his son Ismail. Gradually the people of Mecca turned to polytheism and idolatry. Of all the gods worshipped, it is believed that Allah was considered the greatest and the only one without an idol. In his early teens, Muhammad worked in a camel caravan, following in the footsteps of many people his age, born of meager wealth. Working for his uncle, he gained experience in commercial trade traveling to Syria and eventually from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean. In time, Muhammad earned a reputation as honest and sincere, acquiring the nickname al-Amin meaning faithful or trustworthy. In his early 20s, Muhammad began working for a wealthy merchant woman named Khadijah, 15 years his senior. She soon became attracted to this young, accomplished man and proposed marriage. He accepted and over the years the happy union brought several children. Not all lived to adulthood, but one, Fatima, would marry Muhammads cousin, Ali ibn Abi Talib, whom Shiite Muslims regard as Muhammads successor. Muhammad was also very religious, occasionally taking journeys of devotion to sacred sites near Mecca. On one of his pilgrimages in 610 CE, he was meditating in a cave on Mount Jabal al-Nour. The Angel Gabriel appeared and relayed the word of God: Recite in the name of your Lord who creates, creates man from a clot! Recite for your lord is most generous. These words became the opening verses of sūrah (chapter) 96 of the Qur'an. Most Islamic historians believe Muhammad was initially disturbed by the revelations and that he didnt reveal them publicly for several years. However, Shia tradition states he welcomed the message from the Angel Gabriel and was deeply inspired to share his experience with other potential believers. He began to preach his message of monotheism, social justice, and moral reform to his fellow Meccans, but faced persecution and opposition from the pagan elites. In 622 CE, he migrated with his followers to Medina (then called Yathrib), where he established the first Muslim community and state. He also received more revelations from Allah that regulated the religious and social life of Muslims. He formed alliances with other tribes and communities, and fought several battles against his enemies from Mecca and elsewhere. He died in 632 CE, after completing his mission and uniting most of Arabia under Islam. He is buried in Medina at al-Masjid an-Nabawi (the Prophet's Mosque), which is one of the holiest sites for Muslims. To download a PDF version of this article for free, please click here. Here is the third part of the article: ## The Spread of Islam Islam spread rapidly beyond Arabia after Muhammad's death in 632 CE. His successors, the caliphs, continued his mission and conquered vast territories in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Within a century, Islam had reached as far as Spain in the west and Central Asia in the east. The Muslim conquests were driven by a combination of factors, such as religious zeal, political ambition, economic incentives, and military prowess. Islam did not impose a uniform culture or religion on the conquered peoples. Rather, it interacted with the existing civilizations and cultures, and adopted and adapted elements from them. For example, Islam absorbed and transformed the Persian administrative system, the Greek philosophy and science, the Indian mathematics and medicine, and the Roman law and architecture. Islam also influenced and enriched these civilizations with its own contributions in various fields. The Islamic civilization reached its peak of glory and prosperity under the Abbasid caliphate (750-1258 CE), which was based in Baghdad. The Abbasids fostered a culture of learning and innovation, and supported scholars, artists, poets, and scientists from different backgrounds and religions. The Abbasid era is also known as the Islamic Golden Age, as it witnessed remarkable achievements in science, art, literature, and law. Some of the most famous figures of the Islamic Golden Age include: - Al-Khwarizmi (780-850 CE), a mathematician who invented algebra and algorithms - Al-Razi (865-925 CE), a physician who wrote influential medical books and discovered many chemical substances - Al-Farabi (870-950 CE), a philosopher who synthesized Greek and Islamic thought and wrote on logic, ethics, politics, and music - Ibn Sina (980-1037 CE), a polymath who wrote the Canon of Medicine , a comprehensive encyclopedia of medicine that was used for centuries in Europe and Asia - Al-Biruni (973-1048 CE), a scholar who studied astronomy, geography, history, mathematics, physics, and philosophy - Al-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE), a theologian who reconciled reason and revelation and wrote influential works on Islamic mysticism (Sufism) - Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 CE), a poet who composed the Rubaiyat , a collection of quatrains on love, life, and death - Ibn Rushd (1126-1198 CE), a philosopher who defended Aristotelian philosophy against Islamic orthodoxy and influenced Western thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas - Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406 CE), a historian who wrote the Muqaddimah , a pioneering work on sociology, economics, and historiography To download a PDF version of this article for free, please click here. Here is the fourth part of the article: ## The Division of Islam Islam did not remain united under a single caliphate for long. After the death of Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin, Ali, in 661 CE, a civil war broke out among the Muslims over who should be the rightful leader of the Muslim community. The majority of Muslims accepted the rule of the Umayyad dynasty, which claimed descent from Muhammad's uncle. They became known as the Sunnis, meaning those who follow the sunnah (tradition) of Muhammad. A minority of Muslims refused to acknowledge the Umayyads and supported Ali's sons, Hasan and Husayn, as the rightful successors of Muhammad. They became known as the Shi'as, meaning the partisans or followers of Ali. They believed that only the members of Muhammad's family, called the Ahl al-Bayt (people of the house), were divinely appointed and infallible imams (leaders) who could guide and interpret the Islamic faith. The split between Sunnis and Shi'as became permanent after the massacre of Husayn and his companions at Karbala in 680 CE by the Umayyad army. This event is commemorated by Shi'as every year on Ashura, the tenth day of Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar. Shi'as mourn and lament Husayn's martyrdom as a symbol of their oppression and resistance against tyranny and injustice. The main differences between Sunnis and Shi'as are not only political but also theological and juridical. Sunnis recognize six collections of hadiths (reports of Muhammad's sayings and deeds) as authentic, while Shi'as accept only four of them and rely more on their own collections. Sunnis follow one of four schools of jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali), while Shi'as follow one of three (Ja'fari, Zaydi, Isma'ili). Sunnis believe that God's attributes are eternal and incomparable to human attributes, while Shi'as believe that God's attributes are identical with his essence and can be known through reason. Despite these differences, Sunnis and Shi'as share many fundamental beliefs and practices, such as the belief in one God, the prophethood of Muhammad, the authority of the Qur'an, the five pillars of Islam (testimony of faith, prayer, alms-giving, fasting, pilgrimage), and the six articles of faith (belief in God, angels, scriptures, prophets, judgment day, divine decree). They also respect and revere many of the same figures in Islamic history, such as Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Husayn, and many other companions and descendants of Muhammad. To download a PDF version of this article for free, please click here. Here is the fifth part of the article: ## The Diversity of Islam Islam is not a monolithic or uniform religion. It has adapted to different regions and contexts, and has produced a variety of branches and movements within its fold. Some of these are based on doctrinal differences, such as the Sunni-Shia divide or the Sufi orders. Others are based on political or social agendas, such as the reformist, revivalist, or militant movements. Some of the major branches and movements within Islam are: - Sunni Islam: The largest and most widespread branch of Islam, comprising about 85% of all Muslims. Sunnis follow the sunnah (tradition) of Muhammad as transmitted by his companions and successors. They recognize the first four caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali) as the rightly guided leaders of the Muslim community. They also follow one of four schools of jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali) that derive Islamic law from the Quran and the hadiths. - Shia Islam: The second-largest branch of Islam, comprising about 15% of all Muslims. Shi'as follow the teachings and guidance of Ali and his descendants, whom they consider to be the divinely appointed imams (leaders) of the Muslim community. They reject the legitimacy of the first three caliphs and believe that Ali was the rightful successor of Muhammad. They also have their own collections of hadiths and follow one of three schools of jurisprudence (Ja'fari, Zaydi, Isma'ili) that derive Islamic law from the Quran, the hadiths, and the imams. - Sufism: A mystical and spiritual dimension of Islam that emphasizes the direct experience and knowledge of God through love, devotion, and self-purification. Sufis follow various orders (tariqas) that are led by spiritual masters (shaykhs) who guide their disciples (murids) along the path (suluk) to God. Sufis practice various forms of worship and meditation, such as dhikr (remembrance), sama' (listening), muraqaba (contemplation), and tawassul (intercession). - Reformism: A movement that emerged in the 18th and 19th centuries in response to the challenges posed by colonialism, modernity, and Western influence. Reformists seek to revive and reform Islam by returning to its original sources (the Quran and the sunnah) and rejecting what they consider to be bid'ah (innovation) or taqlid (blind imitation). Some of the prominent reformist thinkers include Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Shah Wali Allah, Muhammad Abduh, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, and Muhammad Iqbal. - Revivalism: A movement that emerged in the 20th century in response to the perceived decline and corruption of Muslim societies. Revivalists seek to restore and revive Islam by establishing an Islamic state based on sharia (Islamic law) and jihad (struggle) against oppression and injustice. Some of the prominent revivalist groups include the Muslim Brotherhood, Jamaat-e-Islami, Hizb ut-Tahrir, and al-Qaeda. - Modernism: A movement that emerged in the 20th century in response to the challenges posed by science, democracy, human rights, and pluralism. Modernists seek to reinterpret and reform Islam by reconciling it with modern values and realities. They emphasize reason, rationality, progress, and humanism as compatible with Islamic principles. Some of the prominent modernist thinkers include Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad Iqbal, Fazlur Rahman, Abdolkarim Soroush, and Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd. - Liberalism: A movement that emerged in the late 20th and early 21st centuries in response to the challenges posed by fundamentalism, extremism, violence, and intolerance. Liberals seek to promote a more open and inclusive Islam that respects diversity, democracy, human rights, gender equality, and interfaith dialogue. They emphasize individual freedom, conscience, interpretation, and pluralism as compatible with Islamic principles. Some of the prominent liberal thinkers include Khaled Abou El Fadl , Asma Barlas , Amina Wadud , Irshad Manji , Tariq Ramadan , Reza Aslan , and Mustafa Akyol . Muslims practice their faith in various ways depending on their personal beliefs, cultural backgrounds, and social contexts. Some of the common practices that Muslims share include: - The five pillars of Islam: The basic acts of worship that every Muslim is required to perform. They are: shahada (testimony of faith), salat (prayer), zakat (alms-giving), sawm (fasting), and hajj (pilgrimage). - The six articles of faith: The basic beliefs that every Muslim is required to affirm. They are: belief in God, angels, scriptures, prophets, judgment day, and divine decree. - The halal and haram: The lawful and unlawful things that every Muslim is required to observe. They include dietary rules, dress codes, ethical norms, and legal regulations. - The adab and akhlaq: The manners and morals that every Muslim is required to cultivate. They include respect, kindness, honesty, justice, generosity, humility, patience, and forgiveness. Islam is often misunderstood and misrepresented by stereotypes and misconceptions. Some of the common misconceptions and stereotypes about Islam and Muslims are: - Islam is a violent and intolerant religion that promotes terrorism and extremism. - Islam is a backward and oppressive religion that denies human rights and democracy. - Islam is a rigid and static religion that resists change and modernity. - Islam is a foreign and alien religion that does not belong to the West or the modern world. - Muslims are a monolithic and homogeneous group that share the same beliefs and practices. - Muslims are a fanatical and irrational group that blindly follow their leaders and scriptures. - Muslims are a hostile and threatening group that seek to impose their religion and culture on others. These misconceptions and stereotypes are often based on ignorance, prejudice, fear, or propaganda. They can be challenged and corrected by learning more about Islam and Muslims from authentic and reliable sources, engaging in dialogue and interaction with Muslims from different backgrounds and perspectives, and respecting the diversity and pluralism within Islam and among Muslims. ## The Future of Islam Islam is one of the fastest-growing religions in the world. According to a 2015 report by the Pew Research Center, Islam is projected to grow by 73% from 2010 to 2050, compared to 35% for Christianity and 34% for the world population overall. By 2050, Islam is expected to have nearly 3 billion adherents, or about 30% of the global population, making it the largest or second-largest religion in the world (depending on whether Christianity grows or declines). The growth of Islam is mainly due to its relatively young and fertile population, as well as its high rates of conversion and retention. Muslims have a median age of 24, compared to 30 for the world population. Muslims also have an average of 3.1 children per woman, compared to 2.5 for the world population. Moreover, Muslims tend to identify strongly with their religion and are less likely to leave it than other religious groups. The majority of Muslims live in Asia and Africa, with Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nigeria being the most populous Muslim countries. However, Islam is also spreading in other regions, such as Europe and North America, due to immigration and conversion. By 2050, Muslims are projected to make up 10% of Europe's population and 2.1% of North America's population. The future of Islam is not only a matter of numbers, b


About

Hi, this is the Icewomen Community Forum. Share anything you...

Members

  • Laura Hof
  • Sagar Sharma
    Sagar Sharma
  • Adhavi Joshi
    Adhavi Joshi
  • Ion Lopez
    Ion Lopez
  • MBS88 Slot Online Gacor
    MBS88 Slot Online Gacor
Group Page: Groups_SingleGroup
bottom of page